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May 22, 2009

A dry borewell, water logging elsewhere

Filed under: India, nature — Tags: , , — neosurya @ 01:02

Last Saturday, I got our borewell in Hyderabad tested for water. There had been no water coming through it for the past couple of years. Parents were obviously concerned, and it had to be fixed. Interestingly, it is rather trivial to dismantle your average household bore whose motor is above ground. It is much more difficult to dismantle submersible pumps where the motor is below ground level [1]. In ground level pumps, there is a long pipe going from the motor that is on the ground through a 100-150 feet hole into the earth. The motor pulls the water through this pipe, and a filter at the bottom of the pipe (called “foot fall”) prevents sand and dirt from getting in with the water. The man at the local borewell store said that there could be two issues: The bore went dry as in no groundwater at the footfall, the footfall got damaged with rust or dirt.

Two workers and the borewell store owner got to our house in the afternoon, and removed the motor from its foundation on the ground. They separated the bore pipes from the pump. They then pulled at the pipes like they was playing a game of tug-of-ropes with the earth. The earth lost out without even a decent fight and out came the pipe – all 100 feet of it. As the last end of the pipe came out, the glorious footfall appeared. It looked like a filter made of cloth and metal. There was no rust, and marginal dirt. There was not even a drop of water on the footfall. When one  digs about ten feet into the ground, the soil feels a little damp. The cloth tied at the end of the foot fall was completely dry. It took about half an hour for them to dismantle the entire system and diagnose the problem. At our house, there was no groundwater at 100 feet.

The owner exclaimed that almost everyone in the vicinity of our house had bores going upto 300 feet. It would cost about Rs 70-100K getting such a bore done. We considered our options and decided against it. Besides, in about a couple more years, we would have people digging bores upto a thousand feet. In the evening there was a family discussion about the borewell. Someone joked that we may reach the other end of earth as we dig our bores. Or better still, an enterprising guy could someday find oil in Anand bagh.

Elsewhere in the city, there are water logging problems. When my in-laws were dropping me at the Kacheguda rlwy station, my FIL lamented that certain parts will be water logged when rains hit us, and at the same time our locality does not have water. I noticed that not one person had left any sort of setback in their homes. Setback is a gap of about 5-10 feet between walls of the residential house and the compound walls. It is equivalent to the lawn in front of US homes. Most metros in India have clear rules about keeping setbacks. Setbacks allow rain water to seep back into the ground, replenishing ground water for one, and also preventing water logging by taking away the heavenly downpour to where it needs to go (into the earth) . We have about 5-10 feet of setback on different sides of our house; many people seldom have setbacks in Hyd. In Bangalore, it is even worse. I recently visited a house worth Rs 1.4 crore; the guy there had left about 1.5 foot of setback, and had aptly concertized even that space.

Today, there was flooding in Koramangala. Sure enough; it would be all over the media. The residents would crib hajaar about how the storm drains got stuck and the water was logged. Everyone would lay blame on everyone else. Excellent solutions for rain water harvesting are available [1], and now it is even compulsory [2].

BTW, I also wonder if the loss of ground water in our area is related to the coca-cola plant that is located barely a 2 Kms. away from our house. Further reading by me showed that a deep bore about 2Kms away may reduce water table, but cannot be responsible for completely drying up the ground water.


Which place do I belong: Bangalore to Buffalo to Bombay…

Filed under: personal, travel — Tags: , , — neosurya @ 00:29

This is the reverse chronological order of cities where I have spent a bulk of my adult life. I belong to both Bangalore and Buffalo. Now, where would Obama place me?

The most enjoyable moments for me in Bombay was when I went out riding a bicycle alone on the roads of BARC. The train ride with friends while going to college, and foot boarding across the Vashi creek was something I always looked forward to. When we were in Ghatkopar, I recall being able to witness awesome sunrises. On clear days, we could almost see up to the hills beyond New Bombay.

Buffalo (Sheridan drive) – our residence for the first three years of our married life. What can I say about this place; my wife can describe Buffalo and our life there better than I can. No matter what I say about the Niagara Falls, Kissing Bridge, the simple Buffalo temple, or the Griffis Sculpture Park, there will be people who still call this the “dead city”. I recall myself driving through the wilderness of South Dakota – miles and miles of nothingness, and when night came, a perfect star-studded sky. Most of my friends would not understand the beauty of an un-spoilt night sky.

Unfortunately though, in these times an individual cannot belong to all places. One has to choose.

Take me for example: I consider myself to belong to three places – and love them all equally. But if I walk up to the US consulate today and tell the consular officer that I want to visit Buffalo or South Dakota  to spend a night at the outskirts of nowhere, there would be little chance of getting a visa. Now that Obama has Bangalored us, we will not be able to go anywhere with any amount of ease.

Forget Obama, even politicians in Bombay once agitated that all non-locals must be sent back. One can see “local sentiment” in Bangalore as well. Watching the Niagara waters flow by on a full moon night, I had exclaimed: “With so much love in the world, how can one think of a war”. They can, because they “think”. I sometimes wish that whoever made us had never given us the power of thought.

May 21, 2009

One patent down, more to come.

Filed under: personal — Tags: — neosurya @ 20:25

Just found out that one of my patents can be seen online, URL: There are a few more in the line where that came from. However, they are yet to be visible. 

Hopefully, there will be more to come. Yes, I know about the whole anti-patent discussion. But I have not been completely sold to the idea that patents are bad.

News summary May 21 2009

Filed under: democracy, India, news — Tags: , — neosurya @ 06:37

‘Ultimate fighting’, a sport with few rules, has raised a storm in Germany
TOI, Bangalore Edition, Editorial page

Just when I was beginning to think that news has become boring, did something very titillating appear in the editorial pages. Apparently:

‘Ultimate fighters’ are men who maul each other with bare knuckles and feet in octagonal cages, a setting straight out of Mad Max. And they can go all out in terms of brutality. About the only thing a UFC participant can’t do is bite his opponent or gouge out his eyes.
….Why do men no longer kill each other in duels, sword fights and other blood-andgore exploits, as they once did with little or no social disapproval? The reason is a civilising process that turned man from savage to human being.COUNTER VIEW:

That the level of violence on display in the mixed martial arts franchise can be difficult to stomach for some people is understandable. But the contestants are willing participants and the viewers are not coerced. They are acting out of free will and there are simply no grounds to deny them that right. Fears that it will contribute to a culture of violence are overblown.

There is an element of hypocrisy on display as well. If Ultimate Fighting is to be reviled, what of boxing? The contestants in the latter wear gloves but it can be every bit as bloody. There are well-known instances of serious injuries and even death in the ring. Or what, for that matter, of bullfighting? It does not make it any less of a blood sport because animals, not humans, are being butchered.

One author wrote against the Ultimate Fighting sport, while the other wrote for it. I wonder how much the prize money would be for the winner of this game. And also, which ads would appear during the “breaks”.

An unfinished agenda
TOI, Bangalore Edition, Editorial page

The article is mainly about decentralizing power from Delhi, and the oft-repeated quote that democracy has to come from bottom up. It claims that the Congress will lead to increased strengthening of the Panchayat and Nagarpalia (local governments). Excerpts from the article:

It has long been obvious that India needs more decentralisation. The freedom movement required rallying an entire nation. A centralised political organisation fighting for one cause was needed. After independence, a different political pattern was required. Mahatma Gandhi convened a meeting of Congress leaders in Sevagram in March 1948 to discuss how the organisation could reform itself to meet the challenges of social and economic development. Though he was assassinated in January, the meeting was held as he had desired. The record of that meeting was published in 2007 in a fascinating book, Gandhi is Gone. Who Will Guide Us Now?
In the meeting, Vinoba Bhave made a case for a new form of organisation unlike the hierarchical entities then considered necessary for government, political parties and large businesses. It would be a network of local organisations. He explained that only such an organisation could preserve the spirit of service whereas hierarchical entities would dissipate their energies in internal matters and power politics.
Acharya Kripalani supported Bhave’s argument. “Without decentralisation, democracy is an empty falsehood,” he said. “Centralisation brings bureaucracy. Bureaucracy and technocracy are both equally the enemies of democracy.” Others in the meeting, however, wondered how activities managed in the loose manner Bhave proposed could ever be ‘scaled up’ to have a widespread effect.

India is diverse and has huge challenges of sustainable social and economic development. Unlike China, it also has political plurality and democracy.

But the critical requirement is to decentralise power. Rajiv Gandhi moved amendments to the Constitution to pass on power to panchayats and urban local bodies. Politicians and bureaucrats, however, will not let go of the power they have. Therefore, it is for Congress leaders to fulfil the unfinished agenda.

The writer is quite supportive of the Congress. When I woke up today morning, DD had a long infomercial about Rajiv Gandhi and the Panchayati Raj. Here is an excerpt from his speech: PDF file. NREGA is a good scheme created by the Govt. But it also has a dole out model built in. I wonder if these well-meaning ideals may turn socialist.

Hillary trashes 30 years of US policy towards Pakistan
TOI, Bangalore Edition, page 18
One more reason why humans fight:

“I think that it is fair to say that our policy toward Pakistan over the last 30 years has been incoherent. I don’t know any other word to use. We came in the ’80s and helped to build up the Mujahideen to take on the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. The Pakistanis were our partners in that. The Soviet Union fell in 1989, and we basically said, thank you very much; we had all kinds of sanctions being imposed on the Pakistanis,” Clinton said at a White House event where she announced an emergency $ 110 million aid to Pakistan for the humanitarian crisis in Swat.

Nearly 20,000 slots still left in H-1B visas
TOI, Bangalore Edition, page 18
I guess one can still go to Buffalo after all !!!

7-yr-old found dead in state BJP chief’s car
TOI, Mumbai Edition, page 1
The excerpts of this article should say it all:

Maharashtra’s BJP boss Nitin Gadkari was embroiled in a nasty controversy on Tuesday following the discovery of the body of a seven-yearold girl from one of his cars and allegations that the class III student had been raped.

a local doctor had been summoned to Gadkari’s home immediately after the body was discovered. The doctor declared the girl dead and Yogita’s body was then taken to her home in a rickshaw by her mother and sister. The girl’s father Ashok Thakre said that he was shocked when he saw his wife Vimla entering their home with Yogita’s body. “We rushed her to the Government Medical College and Hospital,’’ said Thakre. Surprisingly, no one bothered to inform the police and a case was filed only after a local activist, Kishore Ingle, intervened late at night.

“It was hot and she (Yogita) could not endure the heat with her frail heart. All other theories behind her death are politically driven,’’

May 20, 2009

Travel by sleeper from Hyd to Blr

Filed under: Indian railways, travel — Tags: — neosurya @ 22:59

Its about 500 Kms from KCG to SBC, almost the distance from NYC to Buffalo. And it costed me Rs 274, little over 6 dollars to travel the distance. I had the dreadful side middle berth [1, 2, 3]. The TC later told us that side middle berths would be discontinued from July end. It was very warm as long as the train was at the Kacheguda station, but once it started moving it became much better. By about 7:50, it was very cool and beautiful. The compartment was very neat. It was unlike the AC compartments – no cell phone or laptop chargers, no hooks to hang bags. But everything was functional. However, there were loose screws here and there and some of the fittings were sharp.

Across from the side berths was  a family of four lads, 2 girls and their two gaurdians. A mom and dad were taking their kids or a trip to Mysore and the cousins also tagged along. As we settled in, the kids had become a little more noisy. There was also a family that boarded with a baby about 6-8 months of age. It was almost like my childhood, when we used to go on long train journeys; fighting for a window seat, jumping about on the upper berth, daddy scolding us to not touch the chain.

It rained pretty heavily tonight. And that made the trip even better. As we sped through drenched farms, the storm occasionally lighted up the countryside in a bright hue. The  brief glimpse of nature’s bounty with the sweet smell of rain-drenched soil was beautiful . While it sure was beautiful, the rain was heavy enough to have damaged standing crops. I later found out from Shekhar that his farm suffered about 50% damage to the beans plantation.

The train got to SBC about half an hour behind schedule. Even though it was a sleeper without the comfort of an AC, I did not fare too badly.

BTW, The Indian Railway Fan Club (IRFC) has a very interesting article on how railways evolved since independence. The trip reports also make for very interesting reading; one such report is about the incident at Nagpur’s diamond crossing junction (Photos here:[1, 2, 3] ).

News summary May 19 2009

Filed under: India, indian elections, politics — neosurya @ 00:23

PG-hopper busted for serial thefts
TOI Bangalore Edition, page 1

Ms Devi Mahalakshmi, apparently a “God-fearing girl” stole about half a KG of gold and other assorted stuff from her roomies. She is also a software engineer. “God fearing” and “software engineer”, and to top it all off, a “girl”. She sure has managed to break a lot of stereotypes. What I wonder is, how nicely these stereotypes are broken everywhere else.

Big loss of face for 353 candidates
TOI Bangalore Edition, page 4

The whole of page 4 is an analysis of the current elections. Apparently, some members from major parties also lost their deposits.
Of the 428 candidates who contested for the 28 Lok Sabha seats of Karnataka, 353 lost their deposits.

The BJP has done very well in the Karnataka area.

Money on English
TOI Bangalore Edition, editorial

It is all about English; it is related to the Mulayam Singh manifesto that was anti-English and anti-computers [1]. Apparently, the politician who claims that computers take away employment sends his kids to English schools. I am positive they also do computers and own a few playstations, nintendos and the like at their official residence. Mulayam also has an online profile on UP Govts website.

Sometime back, there was the story of Raj Thackeray going against English, Hindi, and basically everything and anything that they could lay their hands on. Incidentally, his people vandalized Bombay Scottish, for having Bombay instead of Mumbai in its’ name [1, 2]. Raj Thackeray sent his kids to, where else, Bombay Scottish.

May 18, 2009

News summary – May 18, 2009

Filed under: India, news, sensex scircuit breaker — neosurya @ 23:34

Enter: Old Faithfuls, Young Turks
TOI Bangalore Edition, Page 1

A stable Govt. for the next few years. On 17th May, there was also news that Advani will be stepping down. Regional parties, who till recently were considered to be indispensable [1, 2] are now being pooh-poohed. Ah, for the world of unexpected events. The market is sure to respond +vely. And it sure did; the sensex rose by more than 2000 points in a little over a few minutes to 14,272.63 [1, 2].The circuit-breaker system designed to stop the sensex from growing arbitrarily kicked in twice today, and trading was finally suspended at about 12:00 noon. More about the circuit breaker system and how it is intended to help investors can be seen here:[1, 2]. No, I do not own any stock. Life sucks, right???

Tamil Tigers finally concede defeat
TOI Bangalore Edition, Page 1

The Sri Lankan forces have found Prabhakaran’s body [1]. Several pictures of his family are presented here. More images of the destruction with earlier reports of the death of his son, Charles Anthony.

Love for Vivekananda, clean politics
TOI Bangalore edition, Page 5

Article about Trilochan Sastry , the founder of Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR). He is a bachelor with multiple advanced degrees working towards better electoral reforms.

150 MPs with crime cases in new LS
TOI Bangalore edition, Page 8

The title says it all, need I say any more? Quote from the article:

An analysis of the affidavits filed by contestants reveals there has been a 22% increase in MPs with criminal cases compared with those elected in 2004. About 150 newly-elected MPs have criminal cases pending against them. These include 73 who have serious charges under various counts of the IPC pending against them.

300 crorepati MPs in new Lok Sabha
TOI Bangalore Edition, Page 9

Another set of numbers about our elected reps. Apparently:

The maximum number of crorepatis were found to be from Congress (137), followed by BJP (58), SP (14) and BSP (13).

May 15, 2009

Newspaper summary May 15 2009

Filed under: bangalore, India, indian elections, news, Uncategorized — neosurya @ 06:56

I do not think I would be consistent with the summaries; they take way too much time. But anyhow, it is an honest revival.

SC awards techie Rs 1 cr damages for medical negligence

TOI, Bangalore Edition, page 1

A story about one Prashant S Dhananka, 39, in whose case the supreme court ruled in favor of a compensation of Rs 1 Cr. for gross negligence during chest tumor removal. He was paralyzed waist down after a surgeon damaged his spinal chord during an operation. He was initially ruled to get Rs 15 lakh amount awarded by the Andhra Pradesh high court.

II PU students can change college: HC

TOI, Bangalore Edition, page 2

A Pre-University Education department circular prohibits a student who joined PUC in 2009-2010 academic year from shifting from one college to another when they move into second year in 2010-2011. The Karnataka high court stayed the application of this circular for students who have joined I PUC in 2008-09.

This could be closely related to the dismal PUC-2 results recently seen. Apparently, many NRIs are also moving back to India due to recession and other factors, especially from the middle east.

Traffic curbs on Saturday

TOI, Bangalore Edition, page 3

Interesting to note that traffic would be diverted in view of “Lok Sabha election counting”. Wow. Rule for the people really wants people to make sacrifices.

BDA’s Arkavathy Layout is in no man’s land. While landless farmers will soon lose health cover under the Yeshasvini scheme as they do not have documents, it is an endless wait for those allotted plots

TOI, Bangalore Edition, page 4

Once lush fields and farms were bulldozed and so was the livelihood of nearly 15,000 farmers. This month-end, their Yeshasvini health insurance cover will end. This means they cannot get free medical facilities anymore. Reason: they’ll no longer be farmers as their ‘paani’ (land document) will cease to exist.

The once-rich landlords’ wives who would look after the labourers and the cattle, are now forced to do menial jobs. “One blessing in disguise is that there are many apartments around the villages. Our women do household chores, eat leftovers. It’s very painful,’’ says Patalappa.
The plight of Appaiahanna is pathetic. He owned 12 guntas where he grew jasmine and reared a cow. His family, wife and two children, led a contented life by selling flowers and milk. Today, he has no land and goes for construction work at an apartment site. He pulled out his children from school unable to support their education and they are doing barbending work at the site.

Wednesday, I was having a discussion with folks from office who insisted that urbanization was solving the caste problem. I wanted to say that Urbanization is likely to create other problems; caste has to be solved organically within a rural setting. Could not express the thoughts then, this article explains a few problems that urbanization could cause.

They own plots but cannot build a house on it

TOI, Bangalore Edition, page 4

The other end of the story:

H G Prakash, 76, an ex-serviceman and son of a freedom fighter from Subramanyanagar, made at least four attempts for a 30 ft x 40 ft plot there. His first attempt under the ex-serviceman quota was not even considered. He finally succeeded in getting a plot allotted and it took him another two years to register it, after countless visits to the BDA office. His struggle still continues, and as time goes by, his hopes of building a house are slowly fading. He paid Rs 2.3 lakh for it and Rs 2,000 more for the little piece of additional land around it. Little did he realize the long struggle ahead until he submitted his building plan for approval on October 10, 2008. He still can’t do anything with the land because of the reserved Supreme Court judgment.

There are nearly 8,800 such people who own land but can’t build houses on it. Some are paying a steep interest on money borrowed from banks and other financial institutions. The BDA scaled down the allotment from the initial 20,000 sites to 8,800, but the disturbing wait continues for allottees. “Our money is locked. My father availed of a loan for the plot and with no progress on the layout, what are we to tell the bank?,’’ says Sanjay.

HC: police need common sense, if not intelligence

TOI, Bangalore Edition, page 4

SC frees Varun of NSA charges

TOI, Bangalore Edition, page 4

They say that the BSP Govt. was vindictive. Going by earlier comments that Varun had gained sympathy, this whole NSA thing would have been a “favor”.

Times of India special pages on LOk Sabha Elections May 16 2009.

Times of India special pages on LOk Sabha Elections May 16 2009.

A Cursed Partnership

TOI, Bangalore Edition, Editorial page 14

Nice article on why Indian and US policies on terrorism are different. The article gives eight reasons, but the last one sums it up nicely:

Eighth, the US has exerted undue pressure on victim India. Secretary of state Hillary Clinton has disclosed the reason why New Delhi did not take the mildest diplomatic action against Pakistan after Mumbai: “We worked very hard, as did the prior administration, to prevent India from reacting”. She indeed wants India to suffer more Mumbais silently, saying America has “a lot of work to do with the Indian government, to make sure they continue to exercise the kind of restraint they showed after Mumbai…” Doing deals with militants and paying growing amounts of ransom money to Pakistan are no way to fight terror.

Mountains need legs

Business Line – Life – Page 3, by Shyam G. Menon

Shyam Menon has written a very humorous article, highlighting an interesting aspect of our society. It is not just about ecology, it also relates to  how human endeavors are concentrating on titillation more than anything else. Excerpts:

Several Englishmen had walked up to Everest Base Camp (EBC) and played a match of cricket on a nearby plateau resembling London’s Oval, 17,045 ft high in altitude. Their reward — potential entry into the record books for the highest altitude at which a field sport has been played.


It is harder still to accept that no field sport was ever played when EBC is said to resemble a small tent city in peak season. Nevertheless a record is a record; this was the first time anyone went specifically to play a proper cricket match and not climb the mountain. The team had a Guinness Book official along to ratify the proceedings, reports said.


If I were Everest and looking down after all this at a full-fledged game of cricket at EBC, I would strain every sinew in my mountainous body to heave my bulk off the ground and flee further into Tibet. Perhaps relocate far beyond, to the middle of the Taklamakan.

In an age when people play chess underwater, all it takes is one businessman to vault what those Englishmen did for publicity and record, into the stuff of a regular media circus. It may not be at EBC but somewhere else, equally picturesque and hospitable to showcasing a saga of athleticism for the cameras. Gnarled landscape, snow-capped peaks, television and plenty to gloat about low oxygen. Imagine the wealth of statistics for commentary!

Richard Kirtley, who organised the T20 match on the Queen’s birthday, said chasing the altitude record was “a quintessentially British thing to do”. There was no mention of owning up the consequence of examples set on a fragile environment rimmed by the most populous and freshly rich countries on the planet.

Doordarshan plans to offer Mobile TV services

Business line, Front page

We will now have motorists not just speaking into their phones, but even looking into their latest gizoms as they speed on our roads…

May 13, 2009

Zee TV Telugu little champs – goodness in children

Filed under: personal, politics, zee tv telugu little champs — neosurya @ 23:21

My better half makes me watch “Little Champs” on Zee Telugu TV every Wed and Thurs night. I had bought a TV tuner card in lieu of a tv believing that the absence of a TV would lead to more sensible evenings. If at all, the tuner would be used mostly to see news, or some rare tele-event. Turns out it was wishful thinking :) .

Anyhow, this post is about something very different, not the presence of a TV, or the lack of it. This Little Champs is a competition where children sing songs and are rated by a panel of judges/composers, and by viewer SMSes. From among 24 students, one is removed from the race each week, and as of today, there are four girls – Ramya, Sindhura, Meghana, Anjali Nikhila. The girls age from about 6 to 11 (Yes, SIX!!!). At the end of their song, the participants have to place a vote request , i.e. ask the viewers to vote for themselves. Today, as the first girl took the stage to sing her song, the anchor asked her if she had asked all of their friends to vote. She cheerfully and confidently said that all her friends would vote. And, she added that they would vote not just for her, but for all the four contestants. All the girls gave a similar reply. Now these girls have competed for about a year. After such a stiff competition, one would think that the instinct to compete would be paramount. It is bizzare to think that the girls would hope that all four of them should win. Either the participants have been trained to “stage” such comments, or they are truly very nicely brought up children. An optimist like me would prefer to believe the latter.

But this is kalyug. Bro killing bro, Nigga killing nigga, White killing white, White killing nigga (OMG), Nigga killing white (Happens, swalpa adjust madi), Office politics, Political politics, and ad infinitum. Hence life sucks. It must certainly be the former, the girls are saying such things to sound “nice”. Lofty, utopian ideals cannot surely exist here. Not everyone can win. Some must lose, life is such. Life sucks!!! Which makes me think, what does life suck??? If it does suck, there has to be something at the other end of the straw. I shud really be sleeping now.

BTW, my request that I be excused from watching this contest and that better half continue to watch it did not work. I <have to> enjoy the family time. :)

An interesting forward; original article here:

Customers who have booked flats in New Town Heights, the project being developed by the country’s largest real estate developer DLF Ltd, at Gurgaon, near Delhi, are planning to take the Gandhigiri route to show their “disappointment” with the execution of the project. Around 200-300 of them are planning to gather at DLF’s office to give out roses along with their exit letters to the company.

May 10, 2009

Education in Bangalore – Number of students passing in 12th standard is 43%.

Filed under: bangalore, class 12 exam results, social change — neosurya @ 18:42

The image below says it all:

Pass percentage in class 12 all over Karnataka

Pass percentage in class 12 all over Karnataka. Image from the front page of the TOI Bangalore edition May 10th 2009.

The lowest pass percentage is in Raichur (28.05%), and the highest is in Dakshin Kannada (80.92%). Bangalore – 61%… Wonderful I say. 56.11% girls  and 45.57% boys passed, and there were 74 colleges where the pass percentage was zero.

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